The 7th wonder of the modern world

We all know about attractions such as the Colosseum, the Great Wall and the Taj Mahal. But in the world there are other grandiose objectives that have never heard about the most passionate travelers in the world. And they are worthy of our attention.

Eurotunnel was inaugurated on 6 May 1994 and is considered one of the seven wonders of the modern world, with a length of 50 kilometers with 39 kilometers underwater.

Work began in 1988 on the two ends, and the first junction between the two galleries, French and English took place on 1 December 1990. The work lasted six years.

Eurotunnel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Groupe Eurotunnel SE manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France including the vehicle shuttle services, and earns revenue on ...

At a maximum depth of 70 meters under the English Channel by Eurotunnel, Eurostar travels, high-speed train (TVG), linking London, Paris and Brussels. For technical reasons, the tunnel speed is limited to 160 kilometers per hour. The journey between the two ends of the tunnel takes about 30 minutes.

Construction has two rail tunnels 7.6 meters, one in each direction and a gallery of srviciu 4.8 meters by running special vehicles.

Every day the tunnel is crossed by 400 trains carrying an average of 50,000 passengers, 6,000 cars, 180 buses and 54,000 tons of other cargo.

An investment too expensive

Total investment cost was about 20 billion dollars (about 15 billion), double the initial costs Etim. The money was provided mostly by private investors who lost about 87% of the amount. Their shares have lost nearly 90% of the value of starting lucrăilor and until 1998.

Since the inauguration Eurotunnel, the company that worked in loss of administering galleries. In 2003 losses had risen to 1.33 billion pounds. Eurotunnel has justified these losses through poor use of infrastructure and difficult access it.

Moreover, the contracted interest rates were too high and passenger traffic was 38% lower than estimated, and the cargo was 24% below what was originally calculated.

Amid scandals between shareholders and company management company has been severely restructured in 2007, when 9.2 billion debt was reduced to 4.6 billion. In this way Eurotunnel profit reported first car in 2007 amounted to about one million euros.

Once solved the financial issues, analysts at Le Monde commented: "Eurotunnel has become a money making machine that sees its future in pink".

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An idea from the 1800s

The first idea to build a tunnel between France and England dates from 1802 and belongs French engineer Albert Mathieu Favier. The request was supported by Englishman Henry Mottray later and, a year later.Favier Napoleon had managed to obtain consent for such work, but the British rejected the idea for fear that the tunnel could facilitate the conquest of England by the French.

In 1855, French engineer Thome by Gaumont proposes a tunnel between Cape Gris-Nez (Pas-de-Calais) and Cape Eastwear with baskets vent in full sea and an artificial island bench Varnes, which have housed a maritime station. The idea came in the context of rail transport in Europe was beginning to take shape.

In 1867 William Low and Sir George Clarke Hawkshaw proposed a project to build links between France and Britain. In 1876 a committee was formed the most important Anglo-French works that started a stretch of underground railway. In 1881 began test drilling.

In 1883, at the request of French works are interrupted for military reasons. By that time, England was drilled from a long tunnel of 2,026 meters and one from France 1,839 meters.

The idea of a direct link between France and England was abandoned until after the Second World War. The talks are resumed in 1957 when it formed a study group aimed at construction of the tunnel under the English Channel. Negotiations lasted until 1972 when it signed the first agreement on this issue between France and England.

In 1973 work began on both sides, as two years later, the British ceasing to ask them for economic reasons. On January 20th 1975 the works were stopped. It had dug 300 meters from 400 meters in French and the British.

Landmark agreement for starting work on the tunnel coming in January 1986 at a meeting in Lille between Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher. Eight months after this meeting was created Eurotunnel company. All administrative arrangements were put in place by the end of 1987 and beginning of 1988 the works of the two parties, and the inauguration took place on May 6, 1994.

History provides sanctity to just One record of seven wonders that the one compiled in 200 BC by that the Greek math Philon of Byzantium. The monuments which featured in the early record were that the Colossus of Rhodes that the pharos in Alexandria, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon that the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, the Excellent Pyramid of Giza, that the Mausoleum of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and that the Statue of Zeus in Olympia. The Taj Mahal doesn't figure in it because obviously it didn't exist then. The custom of Seven Wonders has prompted succeeding generations to compile hundreds of lists sice the Alexandrian era.

The Seven Wonders of that the Middle ages were that the Colosseum of Rome that the Catacombs of Alexzandria that the Excellent Wall of CHina, that the Stonehenge that the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, China, that the leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy, and that the Hagia Sopia of Constantinople. The new seven wonders project kicked off at the year 2001 by that the swiss adventure Bernard Weber, rectifies a problem with that the old record. Actually the Greek authors were restricted by their boundaries and could not have seen what was happening around the world. Afterwards there was global movement to select the new seven wonders of the planet by organised international polling.

Seven wonders of the world, less known to tourists

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Great Mosque in Mali Djené

Djené Mosque is the largest building in the world aluviară clay. Djené located in the old city, the mosque was included in 1988 on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Now, the mosque is closed for tourists. It is believed that the decision was taken in 1996 at its walls after a photo shoot for Vogue.

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Chand Baori in India

Chand Baori architectural complex, located in the small Indian village Abhaneri is one of the oldest and deepest wells in the world stage. Giant structure that resembles an inverted pyramid, descend underground more than 30 meters on three of its walls there, in a perfect symmetry, 3,500 steps leading to the water - a small green lake cloudy. Scientists continue to discuss whether the fountain was built between centuries IX - XI or 600 years before our era.

Egypt will rebuild one of the "seven wonders of the ancient world"
English: The Front of Citadel Qaitbay, from the wall above the entrance. (Photo credit: Wikipedia) Supreme Council for Antiquities in Egypt has approved the new project of President Abdel Fattah al-Sissi consisting in rebuilding the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, inform Egyptian authorities still need the consent of the governor of ...

Romania's Parliament Palace

Parliament Palace is one of the most famous architectural monuments in Bucharest, built between the Socialist Republic of Romania. It is considered as the largest civilian administrative building in the world, the largest building of a Parliament and hardest administrative building in the world. Palace area of 270 meters by 240 meters and height - 86 meters. The underground part of the building down to a depth of 92 meters. The palace has 1,100 rooms and 12 floors.

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Old Bridge in Bosnia-Herzegovina

Pedestrian bridge over the Neretva River in Mostar is a modern copy of the old bridge, completely destroyed by Croat fighters in 1993. Bridge in Mostar is an object of UNESCO World Heritage. One of the traditional pastimes of tourists and a means of winning the youth of the city is the Old Bridge jumping on the river Neretva (jump height depends on the water level in the river - from 24 to 30 meters).

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Seven Natural Wonders of Romania - Wikipedia
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UNESCO World Heritage list to include seven groups of monuments or places in Romania: Danube Delta, Saxon settlements with fortified churches in TransylvaniaHorezu MonasteryChurches of Moldavia, Citadel of Sighisoara, the wooden churches of Maramures and the Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains .

Delta has been included in UNESCO World Heritage in 1991. The largest (after the Volga delta) and preserved of Europe's deltas true natural monument, it houses more than 300 species of birds and 45 species of fish, many of them very rare.

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Corvin Castle is one of the largest castles in Europe and is one of the seven wonders of Romania. Constructed in 1446, it has a well of 30 metres deep. Legend ...

Saxon settlements with fortified churches in Transylvania, included in the UNESCO in 1993, are Biertan, Câlnic, Dârjiu, Prejmer, Saschiz, Valea Viilor and Viscri. Transylvanian villages with fortified churches provides a lively cultural landscape of southern Transylvania. These villages are characterized by a specific system of cultivation of the land, a settlement pattern and organization of farms, preserved since the Middle Ages. The localities are dominated by their fortified churches, which illustrate building periods XIII century until the sixteenth century. The most famous of these villages is Biertan.

Horezu Monastery is part of the UNESCO World Heritage since 1993. The monastery founded in the late seventeenth century by Constantine Brancoveanu is a masterpiece of style brâncovenesc unique in the world, and was recognized for style and wealth of sculptural detail, votive portraits and works decorative.

Churches of Moldavia were included in the UNESCO in 1993: Arbor, Humor Monastery, MoldaviaPătrăuţiProbota, Suceava, Gura Humor and Suceava. Dating back to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the monasteries are characterized by frescoes that decorate the exterior walls of the old masterpieces inspired by Byzantine art.

Sighisoara Citadel is the old center of Sighisoara. Built in the twelfth century by Saxon colonists under the Latin name Castrum Sex and kept almost unchanged until today, it is inhabited today. In 1999 the city was inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage list.

Among the wooden churches of Maramures, eight were included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1999. It Barsana, Budesti, Deseşti, Ieud, Plopiş / Sisesti, Iza Meadows, Rogoz / Targu Lapus and Şurdeşti / SISESTI. Extraordinary examples of religious architecture of the region of Maramures wooden, these churches combine Orthodox religious traditions with Gothic influences of the West.

Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains joined UNESCO in 1999. The six - Sarmizegetusa, Costesti Citadel, Costeshty Blidaru Luncani Stone Red Băniţa and chapel - were built between the first century BC and century AD defense and protection against Roman conquest. Today, looking for treasure hunting in the area, as Romania lacks legislation in this area.These fortresses show an unusual bonding between military and religious architectural techniques and concepts borrowed from both the Greco-Roman world and the Iron Age culture.

Egypt will rebuild one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world

Supreme Council for Antiquities in Egypt has approved the new project of President Abdel Fattah al-Sissi consisting in rebuilding the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, inform

Egyptian authorities still need the consent of the governor of the region Alexandria just to be able to start construction of a replica of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, considered one of the seven wonders of antiquity.

Destroyed by an earthquake in 1303, the lighthouse could be rebuilt soon in Egypt, Moustapha said Amin, Chairman of the Supreme Council for Antiquities Youm7 newspaper.

After the announcement in March of President Abdel Fattah al-Sissi, on the project of building a new administrative capital of his country, then at the April, aimed at achieving a second Suez CanalEgyptian pharaoh preparing a third project: building a size replicas of the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

The construction should be raised, the project will be validated after all, on the island of Pharos.Thanks to its size and a very effective play of lights, headlamp light up a perimeter of 50 kilometers around it.

Today, some excerpts from that beacon destroyed by the earthquake are still visible, as were used in the construction Qaitbay citadel.

What are the seven wonders of the world?
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World were a collection of remarkable constructions listed by various Greek authors, including Antipater of Sidon and Philo of Byzantium. The classic list featured seven wonders ...The only survivor of the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Lighthouse of Alexandria has guided sailors for almost 18 centuries, using reflective mirrors and lights of daytime fireworks at night. Replica edifice will be built just a few dozen meters southwest of the original monument site, currently occupied by Qaitbay citadel.

Secretary of the Permanent Egyptian Antiquities, Amin Moustapha, told the Post that Cairo Committee members approved last week, "an old project, proposed earlier by region Alexandria governorate, which aims to bring back to life the headlamp." A "feasibility study" for this project had already been proposed governorate of Alexandria, to take a decision in the coming weeks

Built around 280 BC, the Lighthouse of Alexandria had a height between 110 and 130 meters. It was for several centuries the tallest building ever built by humans.

"Original monument was composed of three parts: a low section, square, which was the central core, an intermediate section octagonal and circular section at the top," said Fathy archeology professor Khourshid to Cairo Post. Heavily damaged as a result of earthquakes produced between the third century AD and XII century AD, construction collapse ended the century XIV. Fragments of the lighthouse were then used to build Qaitbay citadel. Others were discovered on the seabed near the port of Alexandria in the 1990s.

Can You Name All 7 Wonders of the Ancient World ...
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The 7 wonders of Oxford University City

As the oldest University in the  English speaking worldOxford is a unique and historic institution. Tradition plays a great role in Oxford. The architecture in the University & City testifies its great heritage. Oxford lives and breaths education. Oxford is a unique institution which has been educating World Leaders for over 8000 years.

University of Oxford - Wikipedia
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, EnglandUnited ..... In 2016, Oxford University announced that it is to run its first free online economics course as part of a “massive open online course" (Mooc) ...

1)Ashmolean Museum

Travel millenia in minutes, discovering amazing art and archaelogy from around the globe. Egyptian mummies,  Anglo-Saxon treasures and modern masterpiece. If it’s old and amazing it’s there.

Ashmolean Museum
Admission free. Discover half a million years of art and archaeology, from Egyptian mummies to modern art, at the University of Oxford's Ashmolean Museum.

2) Bodleian Libraries
Two in one! First take a tour around the world’s most magical old library (Harry Potter agrees) then visit the shiny new Western Library over the road for an illuminating exibihition and a spot for tea.

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3) Botanic Garden

Take a deep breath of fresh air and dive into the colourful cornucopia of Britain’s first ever botanic garden. There are five thousand new friends to make here, waiting by the river.

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Drift through delicate bluebell woods, wildflower meadows and redwood shadows. There’s nowhere better to lose (or find) yourself than in 130 acres of handsome trees, some of Britain’s oldest.

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5) Museum of National History

What to do a Diplomas, a Dodo and a Dingy Skipper (that’s  a type of butterfly by the way)  have in common? They’re all here, That’s what. And plenty more where they came from. It’s a jungle in  there.

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Clap your eyes on Einstein’s blackboard, survey some of the finest astrolabes on the globe and check your watch against Cardinal Wolsey’s sundial. it’s one giant invention.

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The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, houses an unrivalled collection of early scientific instruments.

Prepare to have your mind grown and blown in Oxford’s gateway to the history of human culture. Face Indonesian deities, ancient totems, samurai swords and other humbling surprises.

Pitt Rivers Museum
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